• History Revision- Adenauer's Foreign Policy

    1. Less than 10 years to become major player

    • best way for WG was to win support of West and reconcile with France
    • re-integration seen as good by US= against communist expansion
    • Petersberg Agreements Nov 1949– FRG joined council of Europe as associate member
    • right to set up consulates in other countries
    • direct representation on OEEC which gave out Marshall Aid
    • representation on the Board of the International Authority on the Ruhr
    2. Emergence of NATO 1949
    • America’s commitment to West Europe far from certain initially
    • Brussels Pact March 1948:-

    – EDO formed, aim was to prevent German resurgence as it was seen as threat to security

    – However- seemed to be protection against the advance of communism= made US reassess position

    American View

    • Western Eu vulnerable to ideological expansion of USSR
    • EDO to European and small to protect WE
    • joining EDO would give US little input on policy making, while committing them to duty of WE protection
    • Atlantic Alliance rather than regional EU ally= increased influence, increased certainty for EU defence against commies.
    3. FRG (effects on it)
    • ambiguous position- vanquished nation which was to be kept in check, but WG lay on frontline against advance of Comms= bigger threat
    • 1950 Adenauer begins to argue for Bundeswher because- combat internal revolutions and contribute to european defence
    • outbreak of Korean War June 1950= made suggestion appear more reasonable and urgent since unlike GDR, FRG was still unarmed
    4. Stalin’s Note March 1952
    • Proposed neutral united Germany- suprisingly liberal- w/e G’s chose should be accepted unclear whether it was propaganda to destabilize Adenauer’s policies or genuine?
    • If true- A had abandoned reunification
    • Schumacher and SPD argued A feared SPD dominated Germany
    • Stalin would never really risk free political Germany- it would threaten the other eastern satellite states
    5. Pleven Plan September 1950
    • French initially unhappy about armed Germany so put foward Pleven Plan which would allow G a limited number of troops but only as a member of a new EDC
    • FAB agreed in principle but Brits unhappy with scheme
    6. General Treaty in Bonn May 1952
    • to set up new EDC, which was successfully concluded in 1954
    • it abolished the statute of occupation and recognized full sovereignty of FRG and pledge to work for future reunification
    • all restrictions on German economy and scientific research lifted
    • allowed to set up Bundeshwer for security
    • EDC arrangements collapsed when French refused to ratify treaty in 1954
    • = A desperate to keep german involvement alive= renounced nuclear weapons and to keep WG army limited in size and kept under strict civil control
    • US led alliance= sent message to USSR, highlight US’s determination to reject further expansion of Soviet influence
    • membership of new alliance had to go beyond that of EDO=
    • NATO April 1949-  established as political defence system, but changed into military stance after soviets successfully tested 1st A-bomb
    7. Open way for German Rearmament
    • British plan to adopt Germany and Italy into Brussels Pact adopted and EDC renamed Western European Union
    • opened way- proposed Four Power summit to discuss reunification had been delayed following power struggle after Stalin’s death in 1953 and GDR riots
    • French reluctantly gave into pressure and WG finally admitted into NATO May 1955
    • = USSR recognized sovereignty of GDR and created Warsaw Pact with GDR as member
    • brought fears America only in it for their own ends
    • JULY 1956- Basic Law changed to allow compulsory military service- provoked controversy
    • 1961- FRG had 350,000 soldiers and was second largest force in NATO
    • criticism some officers formerly served in Nazi wehrmacht
    8. The European Economic Community (EEC)
    • merge WE coal and steel industries= provoked fierce debate. Adenauer accused of selling out by SPD and Schumacher, as ‘chancellor of the allies’
    • Treaty of Paris April 1951– brought about ECSC in 1952 (brits refused to take part) although only industrial agreement it signified a ‘peace treaty between G and F
    • FRG joind IMF 1952
    • Adenauer solidly behind negotiations that led to The Treaty of Rome March 1957, this set up the ECC January 1958
    • ECSC and EURATOM merged into EEC= common policies for agriculture, transport capital and labour and common external tariffs. LT political integration but in ST it was concerned with economic issues
    • Establishment of EEC came at a time when US were looking to relax policies towards USSR. this alarmed Adenauer and he began to pull germany closer to France despite their having different outlooks on foreign policy
    • de Gaulle and A brought closer during 1961 Berlin Crisis
    • January 1953- A gave de Gaulle support veto UK joining EEC
    • Elysee Treaty- a Franco German treaty of friendship
    • Adenauer tried to emphasize to D.Bundestag this didn’t mean a shift in foreign policy and led to fierce debate. Erhard pro US and wanted UK in EEC v Gaullists who feared an integrated Western europe independent of USA
    9. The Hallstein Doctrine 1995
    • heavily criticized in 1960s and 1972
    • since 1949 Adenauer had insisted FRG was the ‘sole legitimate state’ in Germany
    • GDR regarded as illegitimate puppet state
    • Ulbricht same stance but for FRG
    • FRG recognized by most UN members and only Soviet bloc recognized GDR
    • 1955- GDR started describing itself as ‘second german state’
    • sept 1955- A seemed to support this view by establishing relations with Soviet Union as part of an agreement for exchanging POWs
    • =anxious to make clear position not changed- recognition of GDR would harden division and raise doubts over A’s claim that western integration hadn’t harmed chances of reunification
    • Sept 1955 in an adress to Bundestag made his position clear repeated threat in Dec 1955= Hallstein Doctrine
    • Oct 1957 FRG broke off from Yugoslavia for forming relations with GDR and Cuba in 1963
    • HD enabled FRG to prevent recognition of GDR
    • However FRG prevented from establishing diplomatic relations with countries such as China who had recognized GDR in Warsaw Pact
    • = Hindered FRG’s freedom of action and made GDR more dependent on USSR
    10. Brussels Pact
    • set out terms for co-operation and collective defence
    • regarded as anti communist organisation and eventually became broader part of EU

    11. USSR reunification proposal 1953

    • after stalins death Four power Summit, Beria considered selliing GDR to the west provided it became neutral
    • riots 1953 and Beria’s fall delayed Four Power Summit until after FRG joined NATO
    • Geneva 1955- not successful meet as east-west relations were at a low ebb
    • Khrushchev effectively ruled out reunification

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