History Revision- Adenauer's Foreign Policy

1. Less than 10 years to become major player

  • best way for WG was to win support of West and reconcile with France
  • re-integration seen as good by US= against communist expansion
  • Petersberg Agreements Nov 1949– FRG joined council of Europe as associate member
  • right to set up consulates in other countries
  • direct representation on OEEC which gave out Marshall Aid
  • representation on the Board of the International Authority on the Ruhr
2. Emergence of NATO 1949
  • America’s commitment to West Europe far from certain initially
  • Brussels Pact March 1948:-

– EDO formed, aim was to prevent German resurgence as it was seen as threat to security

– However- seemed to be protection against the advance of communism= made US reassess position

American View

  • Western Eu vulnerable to ideological expansion of USSR
  • EDO to European and small to protect WE
  • joining EDO would give US little input on policy making, while committing them to duty of WE protection
  • Atlantic Alliance rather than regional EU ally= increased influence, increased certainty for EU defence against commies.
3. FRG (effects on it)
  • ambiguous position- vanquished nation which was to be kept in check, but WG lay on frontline against advance of Comms= bigger threat
  • 1950 Adenauer begins to argue for Bundeswher because- combat internal revolutions and contribute to european defence
  • outbreak of Korean War June 1950= made suggestion appear more reasonable and urgent since unlike GDR, FRG was still unarmed
4. Stalin’s Note March 1952
  • Proposed neutral united Germany- suprisingly liberal- w/e G’s chose should be accepted unclear whether it was propaganda to destabilize Adenauer’s policies or genuine?
  • If true- A had abandoned reunification
  • Schumacher and SPD argued A feared SPD dominated Germany
  • Stalin would never really risk free political Germany- it would threaten the other eastern satellite states
5. Pleven Plan September 1950
  • French initially unhappy about armed Germany so put foward Pleven Plan which would allow G a limited number of troops but only as a member of a new EDC
  • FAB agreed in principle but Brits unhappy with scheme
6. General Treaty in Bonn May 1952
  • to set up new EDC, which was successfully concluded in 1954
  • it abolished the statute of occupation and recognized full sovereignty of FRG and pledge to work for future reunification
  • all restrictions on German economy and scientific research lifted
  • allowed to set up Bundeshwer for security
  • EDC arrangements collapsed when French refused to ratify treaty in 1954
  • = A desperate to keep german involvement alive= renounced nuclear weapons and to keep WG army limited in size and kept under strict civil control
  • US led alliance= sent message to USSR, highlight US’s determination to reject further expansion of Soviet influence
  • membership of new alliance had to go beyond that of EDO=
  • NATO April 1949-  established as political defence system, but changed into military stance after soviets successfully tested 1st A-bomb
7. Open way for German Rearmament
  • British plan to adopt Germany and Italy into Brussels Pact adopted and EDC renamed Western European Union
  • opened way- proposed Four Power summit to discuss reunification had been delayed following power struggle after Stalin’s death in 1953 and GDR riots
  • French reluctantly gave into pressure and WG finally admitted into NATO May 1955
  • = USSR recognized sovereignty of GDR and created Warsaw Pact with GDR as member
  • brought fears America only in it for their own ends
  • JULY 1956- Basic Law changed to allow compulsory military service- provoked controversy
  • 1961- FRG had 350,000 soldiers and was second largest force in NATO
  • criticism some officers formerly served in Nazi wehrmacht
8. The European Economic Community (EEC)
  • merge WE coal and steel industries= provoked fierce debate. Adenauer accused of selling out by SPD and Schumacher, as ‘chancellor of the allies’
  • Treaty of Paris April 1951– brought about ECSC in 1952 (brits refused to take part) although only industrial agreement it signified a ‘peace treaty between G and F
  • FRG joind IMF 1952
  • Adenauer solidly behind negotiations that led to The Treaty of Rome March 1957, this set up the ECC January 1958
  • ECSC and EURATOM merged into EEC= common policies for agriculture, transport capital and labour and common external tariffs. LT political integration but in ST it was concerned with economic issues
  • Establishment of EEC came at a time when US were looking to relax policies towards USSR. this alarmed Adenauer and he began to pull germany closer to France despite their having different outlooks on foreign policy
  • de Gaulle and A brought closer during 1961 Berlin Crisis
  • January 1953- A gave de Gaulle support veto UK joining EEC
  • Elysee Treaty- a Franco German treaty of friendship
  • Adenauer tried to emphasize to D.Bundestag this didn’t mean a shift in foreign policy and led to fierce debate. Erhard pro US and wanted UK in EEC v Gaullists who feared an integrated Western europe independent of USA
9. The Hallstein Doctrine 1995
  • heavily criticized in 1960s and 1972
  • since 1949 Adenauer had insisted FRG was the ‘sole legitimate state’ in Germany
  • GDR regarded as illegitimate puppet state
  • Ulbricht same stance but for FRG
  • FRG recognized by most UN members and only Soviet bloc recognized GDR
  • 1955- GDR started describing itself as ‘second german state’
  • sept 1955- A seemed to support this view by establishing relations with Soviet Union as part of an agreement for exchanging POWs
  • =anxious to make clear position not changed- recognition of GDR would harden division and raise doubts over A’s claim that western integration hadn’t harmed chances of reunification
  • Sept 1955 in an adress to Bundestag made his position clear repeated threat in Dec 1955= Hallstein Doctrine
  • Oct 1957 FRG broke off from Yugoslavia for forming relations with GDR and Cuba in 1963
  • HD enabled FRG to prevent recognition of GDR
  • However FRG prevented from establishing diplomatic relations with countries such as China who had recognized GDR in Warsaw Pact
  • = Hindered FRG’s freedom of action and made GDR more dependent on USSR
10. Brussels Pact
  • set out terms for co-operation and collective defence
  • regarded as anti communist organisation and eventually became broader part of EU

11. USSR reunification proposal 1953

  • after stalins death Four power Summit, Beria considered selliing GDR to the west provided it became neutral
  • riots 1953 and Beria’s fall delayed Four Power Summit until after FRG joined NATO
  • Geneva 1955- not successful meet as east-west relations were at a low ebb
  • Khrushchev effectively ruled out reunification
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